Movement disorders are diseases that affect a person’s natural movements. This may include slowed or not enough movement (hypokinetic) or increased or too much movement (hyperkinetic).
There are a wide range of movement disorders. Examples of hypokinetic movement disorders include Parkinson's disease and Parkinsonism although the tremor aspect is too much movement in the resting state. Examples of hyperkinetic movement disorders include Dystonia, Chorea and Huntington's disease, Ataxia, Essential Tremor, and Restless Legs syndrome, to name a few.
Spasticity is more of a motility disorder in that there may not be enough movement such as after a stroke, but at the same time, muscle tone is increased causing further restriction of normal movement. Some of these conditions are hereditary while in others, no genetic cause has been found as of yet. There may be an interplay of the environment with a genetic predisposition that causes many of these disorders to come to the surface. Genetics loads the gun but environment pulls the trigger.
The diagnosis of the type of most movement disorders is made clinically which means that the diagnosis is based on the symptoms you are experiencing and what is found on the examination. Occasionally certain imaging studies (such as CT or MRI) or blood studies, including genetic testing, can support a diagnosis although in even severe movement disorders, the scans and lab studies are usually normal since the cause is more of an electrical or chemical disturbance in the brain and not something that can be seen on a scan or detected in the blood. Treatment of movement disorders depends on the diagnosis.
Some of the more common diagnoses treated in our clinic are listed below:
Botulinum Toxin Treatment
Our providers use Botulinum toxins to treat dystonias, hyperhidrosis, myofacial pain and migraine